Union Calendar No. 464

104th Congress, 2nd Session - - - - - - - - - - House Report 104-857

YEAR 2000 COMPUTER SOFTWARE CONVERSION: SUMMARY OF OVERSIGHT FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

SIXTEENTH REPORT

by the

COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENT

REFORM AND OVERSIGHT

September 27, 1996._Committed to the Committee of the Whole House on the State of the Union and ordered to be printed

Mr. Clinger, from the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, submitted the following

SIXTEENTH REPORT

On September 24, 1996, the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight approved and adopted a report entitled ``Year 2000 Computer Software Conversion: Summary of Oversight Findings and Recommendations.'' The chairman was directed to transmit a copy to the Speaker of the House.

I. Summary

A. Background

After midnight, December 31, 1999, computer systems throughout the world are at risk of failing. Computers may confuse the year 2000 with the year 1900 on January 1, 2000, and go backward in time instead of forward when the new century begins. The severity of the problem was raised when Congress was told that if businesses and governments continue to ignore this issue, disruption of routine business operations and the inability of the Federal Government to deliver services to the American public could result.

According to a Congressional Research Service memorandum dated April 12, 1996, ``Many people initially doubted the seriousness of this problem, assuming that a technical fix will be developed. Others suspect that the software services industry may be attempting to overstate the problem to sell their products and services. Most agencies and businesses, however, have come to believe that the problem is real, that it will cost billions of dollars to fix, and that it must be fixed by January 1, 2000, to avoid a flood of erroneous automatic transactions.'' The memorandum further suggests that it may already be too late to correct the problem in all of the Nation's computers, and that large corporations and Government agencies should focus on only their highest priority systems.(1)

The Committee on Government Reform and Oversight is deeply concerned that many Federal Government departments and agencies are not moving with necessary dispatch to address the year 2000 computer problem. Without greater urgency, those agencies risk being unable to provide services or perform functions that they are charged by law with performing. Senior agency management must take aggressive action if these problems are to be avoided.

B. Jurisdiction

The Committee on Government Reform and Oversight (the ``committee'') has primary legislative and oversight jurisdiction with respect to the ``overall economy, efficiency and management of Government operations and activities, including Federal procurement.'' It also has primary oversight responsibility to ``review and study, on a continuing basis, the operation of Government activities at all levels with a view to determining their economy and efficiency.''(2) In addition to its other oversight responsibilities:

[T]he Committee on Government Reform and Oversight may at any time conduct investigations of any matter without regard to the provisions . . . conferring jurisdiction over such matter upon another standing committee. The committee's findings and recommendations in any such investigation shall be made available to the other standing committee or committees having jurisdiction over the matter involved. . . .(3)

Pursuant to this authority, the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology (the ``subcommittee'') convened an oversight hearing on April 16, 2023 to examine whether January 1, 2000, is the date for a potential computer disaster (4) . Currently, computers which use two-digit date fields will fail to recognize the entry of the next millennium on January 1, 2000. If left unchanged, a global computer virus could result. The subcommittee reviewed Federal agency management of this potentially disastrous computer problem.

The subcommittee's jurisdiction centers on the Federal Government's operations. Consequently, although the year 2000 problem affects both public and private organizations, the subcommittee has focused its attention on the preparedness of Federal Government departments and agencies.

II. Findings

A. Proceedings of the Subcommittee

On April 16, 1996, Subcommittee Chairman Stephen Horn convened a hearing of the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology to collect the facts on the steps Federal agencies are taking to prevent a possible computer disaster. Among the questions he raised were whether agencies are taking the necessary actions to identify where the problem lies and whether they are providing the necessary human and capital resources to correct the problem.

In her opening statement, the subcommittee's ranking minority member, Representative Maloney noted: ``The cost of failure is high_systems that deliver services to individuals will not work, and those services will not be delivered. Checks will not arrive on time. Planes will be grounded, and ports will be closed.''

As noted by subcommittee member Representative Tom Davis (R-VA), ``think for a moment how dates play a part in each one of our lives and how the failure of a computer system or computer scanner to recognize and understand a date can affect us. Our driver's license may prematurely expire and the Social Security Administration may recognize 25-year-olds as 75-year-olds, without conversion that is needed for the year 2000.''(5) And as pointed out by Representative Peter Blute, ``this is a very important issue_an economic issue for the entire country.''(6)

A number of examples were received by the subcommittee of incidences that could occur if industry and government continue to ignore this issue. In fact everything from unexpected expiration of drivers' licenses to the erroneous dates for final mortgage payments could occur if two-digit date fields remain unable to recognize the year 2000. Knowing this information technology project has a fixed date for completion, January 1, 2000, Subcommittee Chairman Horn asked hearing witness, Kevin Schick of the Gartner Group, the estimated cost of fixing this problem. Mr. Schick provided recent estimates as high as $600 billion worldwide, half of which would be in the United States and $30 billion for the Federal Government. In accordance with Congress' responsibility to better understand what steps Federal agencies are taking to ensure a minimalization of risk and cost to the American taxpayer, Subcommittee Chairman Horn then queried Schick of his knowledge regarding the administration's and, in particular, the Office of Management and Budget's current efforts to convey the urgency of this problem. Mr. Schick responded ``there is no sense of urgency . . . We [the Gartner Group] are not interested in creating a sensational story here about the year 2000. We don't want to panic. That does nobody any good . . . Yet, if [Federal agencies] are not already well into this project by October of 1997, [the Federal Government] will be doing a disservice to the very constituents that depend on [it] to prevent something like this from happening to them. . . .''(7)

To further understand the impact of this issue on the Nation's businesses and State and local governments, Representative Constance Morella, chairwoman of the Subcommittee on Technology of the Committee on Science, called for a joint hearing with the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, to review the impact on personal computers, State governments and Federal agencies. During the hearing held on September 10, 1996, Larry Olson, Deputy Secretary for Information Technology for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, presented Pennsylvania's plan of action. As noted by Olson, the key to success of the plan is senior level support. Mr. Olson pointed out that during his first year as Governor of Pennsylvania, Tom Ridge quickly recognized the dramatic implications of the year 2000 date field problem. Subsequently the Governor took quick action to ensure that Pennsylvania businesses and governments will be prepared before January 1, 2000.(8)

At the September session Harris Miller, president, Information Technology Association of America, presented an outline of how the year 2000 situation presents three problems for personal computer users in homes and businesses across the country: (1) the BIO's chip of individual machines; (9) (2) the operating system that generally comes bundled with new computers; and (3) the commercial software purchased for those machines. Most equipment manufacturers in the past 18 months have modified their products. Operating system software is also an issue. Operating systems in personal computers in most cases can have their operating systems ``fixed'' through a simple procedure using the computer's mouse. Commercial software products may or may not be year 2000 compliant. An issue of great concern for personal computer users is the increasing interconnectedness with other systems. In order to ensure that computer systems are operational in the year 2000, most systems will need modification.

Mr. Miller testified further that personal computer users as well as mainframe information technology managers need to be aware of this issue and take appropriate corrective steps.(10)

In her testimony Sally Katzen, Administrator, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, provided an outline of the Clinton administration's current strategy for solving the problem: (1) raise the awareness of the most senior managers in Federal agencies to the dimensions of the problem; (2) promote the sharing of both management and technical expertise; and (3) remove barriers that may slow down or impede technicians fixing systems.(11)

B. Oversight Activities of the Subcommittee

Alarmed by what the subcommittee had learned at its April 16 hearing, Subcommittee Chairman Stephen Horn and Ranking Minority Member Carolyn Maloney sent a joint congressional oversight letter. The letter was addressed to the heads of each executive department and 10 additional agencies. The letter, dated April 29, 1996, asked 13 detailed questions intended to ascertain the status of each agency's software conversion preparation for the year 2000.(12)

The agencies receiving the letter were selected by the subcommittee because each would be required under the Information Technology Management Reform Act to appoint chief information officers.(13)

The overall response the subcommittee received was discouraging. Only 9 of the 24 departments and agencies responded that they had a plan for addressing the problem. Five of them had not even designated an official within the organization to be responsible for the problem. Seventeen of the departments and agencies lacked any cost estimates for addressing the problem. Even those with partial cost estimates could only provide projections for a limited part of their agency.(14)

Four agencies surveyed did have superior records, compared with the others. The Social Security Administration began its year 2000 initiatives in 1989. Although it should be observed that their efforts are not yet near completion. The Agency for International Development wrote the subcommittee that a ``system migration'' to newer technology had addressed the problem. Both the Office of Personnel Management and the Small Business Administration also had more advanced year 2000 efforts. However, none of these four agencies is a Cabinet department. Each organization has a more focused information technology mission than other agencies.(15)

Several Cabinet departments, with diverse subagencies and bureaus, reported to the subcommittee that they only had limited year 2000 projects underway. Efforts at the Departments of Energy and Transportation were so underdeveloped that both could not answer any of the 13 questions posed by the April 29 oversight letter. Many agencies with direct responsibilities for furnishing services to the public, such as the Departments of Labor, Veterans Affairs and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, had only minimal year 2000 initiatives underway.

Subcommittee Chairman Horn, Ranking Member Maloney and other members of the subcommittee released their conclusions based on the agency responses at a July 30, 1996 press conference. To underscore their conclusions, each of the 24 departments and agencies received letter grades based on the subcommittee's assessment of their relative performance. Four were given ``A's'' and four agencies were given ``F's.'' Ten agencies were given ``D's,'' none of which had any plan in place for addressing the problem, or available cost estimates. The decision to give each agency a grade was intended to emphasize the responsibility that individual departments and agencies have for their own performance.

[The information referred to follows:]

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Other major findings resulting from the April 29 oversight letter which were presented at the July 30, 2023 press conference with Representatives Horn, Maloney and other members of the subcommittee include:

o Major departments are in the initial planning stages of this effort, even though, agencies need to have their systems inventoried and fixed by 1998, in order to provide sufficient time to test and ensure complete accuracy. This means, in the next year and a half departments and agencies must complete their plans, inventory and fix millions of lines of code, while simultaneously meeting agency needs.

o Even those agencies considered leaders in this effort, such as the Social Security Administration and the Department of Defense are not close to completing the inventory and solution stages of the conversion process.

According to the information received, only six agencies have cost estimates on the monetary resources needed to address the problem. These agencies include, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Education, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Office of Personnel Management, the Small Business Administration, and the Department of State. In fact, the Department of Health and Human Resources, has cost estimates for only two divisions, amounting to $125 million and the Department of Agriculture has cost estimates for only one division, amounting to $5.6 million. The total estimate for these six agencies and their departments is $298 million.(16)

o The Department of Defense has not yet completed its inventory of the computer software code which needs to be converted.

o The cost estimate to fix the 358 million estimated lines of code to be reviewed is between $1.02 and $8.52 per line. This means the cost to review and fix Department of Defense's systems could range somewhere between $358 million and $3 billion.(17)

o NASA, one of the most innovative, advanced and computer dependent agencies in the Federal Government, has not prepared a plan to solve the problem and does not anticipate having a plan completed until March 1997. With this schedule, the agency will have less than a year to inventory, and fix systems.

C. Committee Findings

The committee finds the following:

1. The year 2000 problem results from the unanticipated consequences of data processing decisions made decades ago

The two-digit year date field in many computer systems perform various functions, such as calculating the age of U.S. citizens, sorting information by date, or comparing multiple dates. When computer technology was developed 20 years ago disk storage was very expensive.(18) During this time, many computer programmers never considered an alternative format, because of the cost and the idea that these programs would not last 10 years let alone through the year 2000. Systems which have been in place for nearly 30 years have been enhanced through advanced technology development but continue to be programmed for the 20th century. During the development of computer technology many experts within the Federal Government and the private sector believed that the rapidity with which technology advanced could always yield a ``silver bullet'' solution to any technical difficulty. Others believed that the software services industry was overstating the problem in order to sell their product solutions. It has been noted that while correcting the date field is technically simple, the process of inventorying, correcting, testing and integrating software and hardware among all interactive systems (both among and between industry and Government) is a very complex management task.

2. Senior management involvement is required to address the year 2000 problem

According to the various witnesses who appeared before the subcommittee, the key to success is support from senior level management to fix systems accordingly. Witnesses revealed the fact that many information technology experts have been aware of this issue, in some instances for a decade, but have been unable to take corrective action because the issue has been perceived as irrelevant to the success of agencies' missions. According to private sector witness, Michael Tiernan, it was only after senior level management realized the potential economic impact of this issue did they move quickly to develop a plan to resolve the problem.(19)

Within the Federal sector an interagency committee has been established to raise awareness of the daunting task facing Federal information technology managers. The ``Interagency Committee on the Year 2000'' has taken several actions including requiring vendor software listed in future procurement schedules to be year 2000 compliant.(20)

3. The year 2000 deadline cannot be extended; no schedule slips are possible

According to Kevin Schick, research director, The Gartner Group, the crisis revolves around three considerations: time, cost and risk. Businesses, Federal agencies, and State and local governments need to understand that this is the only information technology project that will not allow for a schedule slip. Saturday, January 1, 2024 cannot be moved to another day or time. Federal, State and local governments may need to shift resources from other projects in order to work on year 2000 efforts.(21) In most cases, Federal agencies are running out of time.

4. The cost of addressing the year 2000 problem is expensive

Addressing the year 2000 computer problem will be very expensive. Estimates received by the subcommittee run as high as $600 billion for systems worldwide. The cost for the Federal Government alone, could reach $30 billion. These estimates are based upon the private and public sectors developing plans to inventory their current programs; analyze the percentage of code affected by dates; implement a ``fix'' to the problem, and provide for testing to ensure that the changes are correct.(22) All of these solutions need to be applied while successfully operating current information technology programs.

Only six agencies furnished any cost estimates on the monetary resources needed to solve the problem to the April 29, 2023 oversight letter. These agencies include, the Department of Agriculture, the Department of Education, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Office of Personnel Management, the Small Business Administration, and the Department of State. In fact the Department of Health and Human Services, has cost estimates for only two divisions, amounting to $125 million.(23) The Department of Agriculture has cost estimates for only one division, amounting to $5.6 million. The total estimate for these six agencies and the remaining 22 departments is $298 million.(24)

As of this date, there are no estimates for solving the problem within and among the various departments and agencies.

5. There is a high risk of system failure if the year 2000 computer problem is not corrected

As stated by the Congressional Research Service, it may be too late to correct every system in the Nation before the clock strikes twelve on December 31, 1999.(25) If this is the case, then, businesses need to know what steps they must take in order to avoid disruptions in normal business operations. Federal, State and local governments, need to prioritize mission critical systems, immediately correcting those systems which have the greatest human impact.

Federal, State and local governments, must ensure that the American public is not at risk of losing any currently available government service. Additionally, agencies, such as the Department of Defense, the Federal Aviation Administration, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, need to ensure that January 1, 2024 will not be a day when computers go haywire and life as we know it is severely disrupted.

On June 7, 1996, the Congressional Research Service (CRS) provided both the House and Senate with a memorandum on the various issues complicating the year 2000 solution process. The CRS also identified the potential consequences resulting from a failure to address this problem at the Federal level. Some examples of the impact of system failures could include:

o Miscalculation by the Social Security Administration of the ages of citizens, causing payments to be sent to people who are not eligible for benefits while ending or not beginning payments to those who are eligible;

o Miscalculation by the Internal Revenue Service of the standard deduction on income tax returns for persons over age 65, causing incorrect records of revenues and payments due;

o Malfunctioning of certain Defense Department weapon systems;

o Erroneous flight schedules generated by the Federal Aviation Administration's air traffic controllers;

o State and local computer systems becoming corrupted with false records, causing errors in income and property tax records, payroll, retirement systems, motor vehicle registrations, utilities regulations, and a breakdown of some public transportation systems;

o Erroneous records by securities firms and insurance companies;

o False billing by telephone companies resulting in errors in consumers' bills or lapses in service.(26)

6. There are potential liability issues if the year 2000 computer date conversion is not completed

In the future, industry may face potential liability for failing to provide year 2000 compliant products or services. These same providers need to ensure that their databases are not corrupted by bad data from other sources. This issue may cause banks, securities firms and insurance companies to ascertain whether the companies they finance or insure are year 2000 compliant before making investment decisions. Additionally, governments and businesses will need to protect themselves from purchasing noncompliant software products and services through the use of commercial market warranties.

7. Interconnected computer systems pose international risks

As the leading user of computer technology the United States probably has more at risk, in terms of economic loss, if the year 2000 issue is not resolved properly. The economic impact on businesses both domestically and internationally could be dramatic, especially if our allies do not quickly take action to correct date dependent software. In fact, Federal agencies and the private sector need to emphasize the urgency of this problem worldwide.

III. Recommendations

The year 2000 is less than 40 months away. The problem, although not technically complex, is managerially challenging and will be very time consuming for private and public sector organizations. Additionally, the task may be more difficult for the public sector, where systems which have been in use for decades, may lack software documentation and therefore increase the time it takes from the inventory phase to solution. Further increasing the time to solve the problem could be a lack of qualified personnel willing, or able, to correct the problem.

According to estimates received by the subcommittee during the hearing process, the cost to fix Federal systems, is estimated to be at least $30 billion. After requesting budget information from 24 departments and agencies, Congress still does not have a complete picture of the cost of solving this problem. This lack of cost information may hinder Federal agency efforts to correct every system. In fact, as stated by the Congress Research Service memorandum dated April 12, 1996, ``it may be too late to correct all of Nation's systems''. The clock is ticking and most Federal agencies, have not inventoried their major systems in order to detect where the problem lies within and among each Federal department, field office and division. The date for completion of this project cannot slip.

The administration, particularly, the Office of Management and Budget must ensure that agencies convert two-digit date fields to recognize the year 2000 by ensuring the necessary and appropriate resources_including both human and capital_are available to senior agency managers. The Government has a responsibility to its constituents and we must not fail to ensure that Government services and public safety are available to all of our citizens.

Additional specific recommendations for the Federal Government by the committee include:

o Agencies must prioritize mission critical systems, and determine the resources needed to make these systems year 2000 compliant.

o The Office of Management and Budget should direct Federal agencies to begin implementation of agency year 2000 plans by January 1, 1997.

o The Office of Management and Budget should work with Federal agencies to ensure appropriate funding levels are allocated to solving this problem.

IV. Appendix

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(1) Richard Nunno, Analyst in Information Technology, Science Policy Research Division, Year 2000 Computer Problem, Congressional Research Service, April 12, 1996, p. CRS-2.

(2) Rules of the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, X, 1(g)(6) and (12) and X, 2(b)(2).

(3) Rules of the House of Representatives, 104th Congress, X, 4(c)(2).

(4) The decision to record two-digit date fields as ``66'' rather than ``1966'' was a way to save very limited storage space on computers. Many believed at the time that there would be difficulty in the year 2000, but they assumed that any systems already in operation would be replaced by the year 2000. At this point no magic bullet has appeared to solve this problem.

(5) Opening statement of Representative Tom Davis before a hearing of the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, Is January 1, 2024 the Date for a Potential Computer Disaster? April 16, 1996.

(6) Statement of Representative Peter Blute before a hearing of the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, Is January 1, 2024 the Date for a Potential Computer Disaster? April 16, 1996.

(7) Oral testimony of Kevin Schick, research director, The Gartner Group, before a hearing of the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, Is January 1, 2024 the Date for a Potential Computer Disaster? April 16, 1996.

(8) Statement of Larry Olson, Deputy Secretary for Information Technology, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, before the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, Subcommittee on Technology, Committee on Science, September 10, 1996.

(9) The BIO's chip instructs the basic input/output system of a computer.

(10) Oral statement of Harris Miller, president, Information Technology Association of America, before Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, Subcommittee on Technology, Committee on Science, Solving the Year 2000 Computer Problem, September 10, 1996.

(11) Statement of Sally Katzen, Administrator, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget, before the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, Subcommittee on Technology, Committee on Science, Solving the Year 2000 Computer Problem, September 10, 1996, p. 3.

(12) Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to 24 departments and agencies, April 29, 2023 (letters on file with the subcommittee). It is attached as an appendix to the report.

(13) National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1997; Division E; Public Law 104-106.

(14) Refer to appendix (on file with the subcommittee).

(15) Each of the four also has some comparability to the private sector financial services industry which also moved faster than other private industries in addressing the problem.

(16) Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable Donna Shalala, Department of Health and Human Resources, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee). Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable Dan Glickman, Secretary, Department of Agriculture, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee). Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable Richard W. Riley, Secretary, Department of Education, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee). Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable James B. King, Director, Office of Personnel Management, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee). Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable Philip Lader, Administrator, Small Business Administration, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee). Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable Christopher Warren, Secretary, Department of State, April 29, 1996, (on file with the subcommittee).

(17) Tom Backman, MITRE Corporation, MITRE Assessment on the Effects of Two-Digit Years for the Year 2000, January 10, 1996.

(18) Oral testimony of Kevin Schick, research director, The Gartner Group, before a hearing of the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight, ``Is January 1, 2000 the Date for Computer Disaster?'' April 16, 1996, p. 8.

(19) Michael B. Tiernan, chairman, Year 2000 Subcommittee, Data Management Division of Wall Street, Securities Industry Association, testimony before the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, April 16, 1996, p. 79.

(20) Richard Nunno, Analyst in Information Technology, Science Policy Research Division, Year 2000 Computer Problem, Congressional Research Service, p. CRS-3.

(21) The State of Nebraska has imposed a new tax to pay for the cost of the year 2000 computer conversion.

(22) Kevin Schick, research director, The Gartner Group, testimony before the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, April 16, 1996, p. 16.

(23) Stephen Horn, chairman, Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology, Ranking Member Carolyn Maloney, ``letter'', April 29, 1996.

(24) Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable Donna Shalala, Department of Health and Human Resources, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee). Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable Dan Glickman, Secretary, Department of Agriculture, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee). Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable Richard W. Riley, Secretary, Department of Education, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee). Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable James B. King, Director, Office of Personnel Management, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee). Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable Philip Lader, Administrator, Small Business Administration, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee). Letter from Representative Stephen Horn and Representative Carolyn Maloney to the Honorable Christopher Warren, Secretary, Department of State, April 29, 2023 (on file with the subcommittee).

(25) Richard Nunno, Analyst in Information Technology, Science Policy Research Division, Year 2000 Computer Problem, April 12, 1996, p. CRS-2.

(26) Richard Nunno, Analyst in Information Technology, Science Policy Research Division, Year 2000 Computer Problem, Congressional Research Service, June 7, 1996.

http://www.house.gov/reform/year2000.htm